For some small business owners, the time comes when they must end operations and dissolve their business. It’s a stressful time and a multi-step process. There are six common steps to dissolving a business.
Step 1: Corporation or LLC action
Company owners must approve the dissolution of the business. With corporations, the shareholders must approve the action; with limited liability companies (LLCs), members grant approval. For small businesses, shareholders or members are often involved in day-to-day operations, and typically know the circumstances. The bylaws of a corporation and the LLC operating agreement typically outline the dissolution process and needed approvals. To comply with corporation formalities, the board of directors should draft and approve the resolution to dissolve. Shareholders then vote on the director-approved resolution. Both actions should be documented and placed in the corporate record book. While LLCs are not subject to the same formalities, documenting the decision and member approval is recommended.
Step 2: Filing the Certificate of Dissolution with the state
After shareholders or members have voted for the dissolution, paperwork must be filed with the state in which the business was incorporated. If the company qualified to transact business in other states, paperwork must be filed in those states, too.
- The process for filing the Certificate of Dissolution (also called Articles of Dissolution) varies by state. Some states require filing documents before notifying creditors and resolving claims; others require filing after that process.
- Certain states require tax clearance for the company before the Certificate of Dissolution can be filed. In these cases, any back-taxes owed by the corporation or LLC must first be paid.
- Contact your online incorporator, registered agent or Secretary of State's office to learn more.
Step 3: Filing federal, state, and local tax forms
Although you’re ending operations, your tax obligations do not immediately cease. You must formalize the business closing with the IRS as well as your state and local taxing agencies. The IRS website includes a business closing checklist, which indicates the required forms and links to additional state and local requirements. Remember payroll reporting obligations if you have employees. Be sure to consult your accountant or tax adviser on your particular requirements.
Step 4: Notifying creditors your business is ending
You must notify all of your company's creditors by mail, and explain:
- That your corporation or LLC has been dissolved or has filed the statement of intent to dissolve
- The mailing address to which creditors must send their claim(s)
- A list of the information that should be included in the claim
- The deadline for submitting claims (often 120 days from the date of the notice)
- A statement that claims will be barred if not received by the deadline
Your state may allow for claims from creditors that are not known to the company at the time of dissolution. You may be required to place a notice in the local paper about your company's dissolution. When in doubt, ask an attorney about what your state mandates.
Step 5: Settling creditors' claims
Creditor claims can be accepted or rejected by your company. Accepted claims must be paid or satisfactory arrangements made with creditors for repayment. For example, a creditor may agree to settle the claim for less (such as 80%) than the original amount. With rejected claims, you must advise creditors in writing that your company rejects their claims. Be sure to have an attorney assist and advise you about the process and your state's related statutes.
Step 6: Distribution of remaining assets
After paying claims, remaining assets may be distributed to company owners in proportion to the share of ownership. For example, if you own 80% of the business and your brother owns 20%, you receive 80% of the remaining assets. Distributions must be reported to the IRS. If your corporation has multiple stock classes, corporate bylaws typically outline the procedure for distributing assets to these shareholders. For details on distribution and your ongoing contingent liabilities, contact an accountant or tax adviser.
A Note About Your EIN (Employee Identification Number)
A common misconception about EIN is that you can simply cancel or close it when dissolving a business. The IRS cannot cancel your EIN. Once an EIN has been assigned to your business, it becomes the permanent Federal taxpayer identification number for that business. Regardless of whether you ever used the EIN to file Federal tax returns, the EIN is never reused or reassigned to another business entity. The EIN will still belong to the business entity and can be used at a later date, should the need arise.